O arranjo espacial oriental mais comum pode ser exemplificado a partir do plano do Mosteiro da Grande Lavra , em Monte Atos. O lado mais longo tem cerca de metros. Existe uma pequena porta das traseiras L. Journal, , vol. O primeiro e terceiro ficavam nos lados da entrada comum do mosteiro.

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Benedict OSB is the oldest order of monks in the West. There are both Roman Catholic and Anglican Benedictines, men and women who base their way of life on the rule written by St. Unlike other religious orders, the Benedictines are not a centralized organization. Each monastery is independent. A large monastery is an Abbey headed by an Abbot or an abbess.

A small monastery is a priory headed by a Prior or a prioress. Individual Benedictine houses are joined with others to form a congregation. The various congregations together form a confederation at the head of which is the abbot primate, first among equals of the various abbots. A few houses belong to no congregation and are directly subject to the abbot primate. The Benedictine life is led within a community in the context of personal recollection and work, interspersed with the public recitation or singing of the Divine Office.

Public worship is performed with solemnity and beauty. Work is essential; it can be manual, intellectual, or service-oriented. Each monastery may vary in its stress on prayer and its type of work without changing the basic orientation.

The Benedictine habit is generally black, composed of tunic, belt, scapular, and hood, and a large flowing garment called the cowl for public worship. Until the end of the 11th century, the Benedictines were the only monastic order in the West. They played important roles in apostolic activity, in education, and in the arts.

Repr ; Meisel, Anthony C. Mork , Wulston, Caminho Beneditino Benedict, and commonly known as "black monks". History of the Order; I.

Benedictines of Special Distinction; V. Other Foundations Originating from, or Based upon, the Order. Benedict is used in a sense differing somewhat from that in which it is applied to other religious orders.

In its ordinary meaning the term implies one complete religious family, made up of a number of monasteries, all of which are subject to a common superior or "general" who usually resides either in Rome or in the mother-house of the order, if there be one. It may be divided into various provinces, according to the countries over which it is spread, each provincial head being immediately subject to the general, just as the superior of each house is subject to his own provincial.

This system of centralized authority has never entered into the organization of the Benedictine Order. There is no general or common superior over the whole order other than the pope himself, and the order consists, so to speak, of what are practically a number of orders, called "congregations", each of which is autonomous; all are united, not under the obedience to one general superior, but only by the spiritual bond of allegiance to the same Rule, which may be modified according to the circumstances of each particular house or congregation.

It is in this latter sense that the term Order is applied in this article to all monasteries professing to observe St.

Benedict did not, strictly speaking, found an order; we have no evidence that he ever contemplated the spread of his Rule to any monasteries besides those which he had himself established. Subiaco was his original foundation and the cradle of the institute.

From St. Gregory we learn that twelve other monasteries in the vicinity of Subiaco also owed their origin to him, and that when he was obliged to leave that neighbourhood he founded the celebrated Abbey of Monte Cassino, which eventually become the centre whence his Rule and institute spread. These fourteen are the only monasteries of which there is any reliable evidence of having been founded during St.

The tradition of St. Very little more can be said in favour of the supposed introduction of the Benedictine Rule into Gaul by St. Maurus in , though it also has been strenuously upheld by many responsible writers. At any rate, evidences for it are so extremely doubtful that it cannot be seriously regarded as historical. There is reason for believing that it was the third Abbot of Monte Cassino who began to spread a knowledge of the Rule beyond the circle of St.

It is at least certain that when Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards about the year , the monks fled to Rome, where they were housed by Pope Pelagius II in a monastery adjoining the Lateran Basilica. There, in the very centre of the ecclesiastical world, they remained for upwards of a hundred and forty years, and it seems highly probable that this residence in so prominent a position constituted an important factor in the diffusion of a knowledge of Benedictine monasticism.

It is generally agreed also that when Gregory the Great embraced the monastic state and converted his family palace on Apostle, it was the Benedictine form of monachism that he adopted there. It was from the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome that St. Augustine, the prior, and his forty companions set forth in on their mission for the evangelization of England, and with them St.

Foi a partir do mosteiro de St. Butler, "Was St. Augustine a Benedictine? Honoratus in , probably received its first knowledge of the Benedictine Rule from the visit of St.

Augustine and his companions in Dismayed by the accounts they had heard of the ferocity of the English, the missionaries had sent their leader back to Rome to implore the pope to allow them to abandon the object of their journey. Not long after their departure, Aygulph, Abbot of Fleury, was called in to restore the discipline and he probably introduced the full Benedictine observance; for when St. There, as also in Switzerland, it had to contend with and supplement the much stricter Irish or Celtic Rule introduced by St.

Columbanus and others. In or practised side by side. Em praticado ou de lado a lado. Gregory of Tours says that at Ainay, in the sixth century, the monks "followed the rules of Basil, Cassian, Caesarius, and other fathers, taking and using whatever seemed proper to the conditions of time and place", and doubtless the same liberty was taken with the Benedictine Rule when it reached them.

In other monasteries it entirely displaced the earlier codes, and had by the end of the eighth century so completely superseded them throughout France that Charlemagne could gravely doubt whether monks of any kind had been possible before St. The authority of Charlemagne and of his son, Louis the Pious, did much, as we shall presently see, towards propagating the principles of the Father of western monachism. Augustine and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in Other foundations quickly followed as the Benedictine missionaries carried the light of the Gospel with them throughout the length and breadth of the land.

It was said that St. Benedict seemed to have taken possession of the country as his own, and the history of his order in England is the history of the English Church.

Nowhere did the order link itself so intimately with people and institutions, secular as well as religious, as in England. Through the influence of saintly men, Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, and Dunstan, the Benedictine Rule spread with extraordinary rapidity, and in the North, when once the Easter controversy had been settled and the Roman supremacy acknowledged Synod of Whitby, , it was adopted in most of the monasteries that had been founded by the Celtic missionaries from Iona.

Many of the episcopal sees of England were founded and governed by the Benedictines, and no less than nine of the old cathedrals were served by the black monks of the priories attached to them. Even when the bishop was not himself a monk, he held the place of titular abbot, and the community formed his chapter.

Germany owed its evangelization to the English Benedictines, Sts. Willibrord and Boniface, who preached the Faith, there in the seventh and eighth centuries and founded several celebrated abbeys.

From thence spread, hand in hand, Christianity and Benedictine monasticism, to Denmark and Scandinavia, and from the latter even to Iceland. In Spain monasteries had been founded by the Visigothic kings as early as the latter half of the fifth century, but it was probably some two or three hundred years later St. I, praef. I, Praef. In Switzerland the disciples of Columbanus had founded monasteries early in the seventh century, two of the best known being St. The Celtic rule was not entirely supplanted by that of St.

Benedict until more than a hundred years later, when the change was effected chiefly through the influence of Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. By the ninth century, however, the Benedictine had become the only form of monastic life throughout the whole of Western Europe, excepting Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, where the Celtic observance still prevailed for another century or two.

At the time of the Reformation there were nine Benedictine houses in Ireland and six in Scotland, besides numerous abbeys of Cistercians. Benedictine monasticism never took such deep root in the eastern countries of Europe as it had done in the West. The Bohemians and the Poles, nevertheless, owed their conversion respectively to the Benedictine missionaries Adalbert d. Boniface and his disciples. A few of the larger abbeys founded in these countries during the ninth and tenth centuries still exist, but the number of foundations was always small in comparison with those farther west.

Into Lithuania and the Eastern Empire the Benedictine Rule never penetrated in early times, and the great schism between East and West effectually prevented any possibilities of development in that direction.

Benedict there existed no organic bond of union amongst the various abbeys other than the Rule itself and obedience to the Holy See. The earliest departures from this system occurred when several of the greater abbeys began sending out offshoots, under the form of daughter-houses retaining some sort of dependence upon the mother abbey from which they sprang.

This mode of propagation, together with the various reforms that began to appear in the eleventh and succeeding centuries, paved the way for the system of independent congregations, still a feature peculiar to the Benedictine Order. Reforms Reformas A system which comprised many hundreds of monasteries and many thousands of monks, spread over a number of different countries, without any unity of organization; which was exposed, moreover, to all the dangers and disturbances inseparable from those troublous times of kingdom-making; such a system was inevitably unable to keep worldliness, and even worse vices, wholly out of its midst.

Hence it cannot be denied that the monks often failed to live up to the monastic ideal and sometimes even fell short of the Christian and moral standards. There were failures and scandals in Benedictine history, just as there were declensions from the right path outside the cloister, for monks are, after all, but men. But there does not seem ever to have been a period of widespread and general corruption in the order. Here and there the members of some particular house allowed abuses and relaxations of rule to creep in, so that they seemed to be falling away from the true spirit of their state, but whenever such did occur they soon called forth efforts for a restoration of primitive austerity; and these constantly recurring reform movements form one of the surest evidences of the vitality which has pervaded the Benedictine Institute throughout its entire history.

It is important to note, moreover, that all such reforms as ever achieved any measure of success came invariably from within, and were not the result of pressure from outside the order. The first of the reforms directed towards confederating the monastic houses of a single kingdom was set on foot early in the ninth century by Benedict of Aniane under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.

Though a Benedictine himself born in Aquitaine and trained at Saint-Seine near Dijon, Benedict was imbued with the rigid austerity of the East, and in his Abbey of Aniane practiced a mode of life that was severe in the extreme. Over Louis he acquired an ascendancy which grew stronger as years went on. At his instigation Louis built for him a monastery adjoining his own palace at Aix-la-Chapelle, which was intended to serve as a model according to which all others were to be reformed, and to bring about this end Benedict was invested with a general authority over all the monasteries of the empire.

Absolute uniformity of discipline, observance, and habit, after the pattern of the royal monastery, was then the general scheme which was launched at an assembly of all the abbots at Aachen Aix-la-Chapelle in and embodied in a series of eighty capitula passed by the meeting.

Though by reason of the very minuteness of these capitula, which made them vexatious and ultimately intolerable, this scheme of centralized authority lasted only for the lifetime of Benedict himself, the capitula printed in full in Herrgott, "Vetus Disciplina Monastica", Paris, were recognized as supplying a much needed addition to St.

A century later, in , the first real reform that produced any widespread and general effect was commenced at the Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy, under St. Berno, its first abbot.


Mosteiro de San Xulián de Samos








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