BC has a gain value of to , this value determines the amplification capacity of the transistor. The maximum amount of current that could flow through the Collector pin is mA, hence we cannot connect loads that consume more than mA using this transistor. To bias a transistor we have to supply current to base pin, this current IB should be limited to 5mA. When this transistor is fully biased then it can allow a maximum of mA to flow across the collector and emitter.
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Technical feats previously requiring relatively large, mechanically fragile, power-hungry vacuum tubes were suddenly achievable with tiny, mechanically rugged, power-thrifty specks of crystalline silicon. This revolution made possible the design and manufacture of lightweight, inexpensive electronic devices that we now take for granted. Understanding how transistors function is of paramount importance to anyone interested in understanding modern electronics.
My intent here is to focus as exclusively as possible on the practical function and application of bipolar transistors, rather than to explore the quantum world of semiconductor theory. Discussions of holes and electrons are better left to another chapter in my opinion. Each layer forming the transistor has a specific name, and each layer is provided with a wire contact for connection to a circuit. The functional difference between a PNP transistor and an NPN transistor is the proper biasing polarity of the junctions when operating.
For any given state of operation, the current directions and voltage polarities for each kind of transistor are exactly opposite each other. In other words, transistors restrict the amount of current passed according to a smaller, controlling current. In other words, two types of charge carriers—electrons and holes—comprise this main current through the transistor.
This is the first and foremost rule in the use of transistors: all currents must be going in the proper directions for the device to work as a current regulator.
BC547 - NPN - Transistor
BC547: NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor