Metrics details Abstract A total of microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, on 20 race-horses and on 20 working-horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common coprophilous fungi are in decreasing orderPilobolus kleinii, Saccobolus depauperatus, Mucor hiemalis, Lasiobolus ciliatus, Podospora curvula, Petriella guttulata, M. Species ofMyrothecium verrucaria, Actinomucor elegans, Kernia nitida, Spiculostilbella dendritica andMucorparvispora were found exclusively in working-horses feces. Badhamia sp. Chlamidomyces palmarum andPhilocopra sp.

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Coprophilous fungi Coprophilous fungi are a type of saprobic fungi that grow on animal dung. The hardy spores of coprophilous species are unwittingly consumed by herbivores from vegetation, are excreted along with the plant matter; the fungi flourish in the feces , before releasing their spores to the surrounding area.

The fruiting bodies of the fungi grow from the animal feces, it is essential that the spores of the species reach new plant material. As such, some species have developed means of discharging spores a large distance. An example of this is the genus Pilobolus. Fruiting bodies of Pilobolus will rupture, sending the contents over 2 metres away. This thick wall is broken down during digestion, readying the spore for germination. The spores are so hardy that samples of dried dung can be rehydrated, allowing the fungus to fruit weeks later; the distribution of coprophilous fungi is linked to the distribution of the herbivores on which they rely, such as rabbits, cattle and sheep.

Some species rely on a specific species for dung. Further, some species can be found in large numbers in areas where manure has been used as a soil fertilizer , such as in gardens; some coprophilous fungi are known to grow from the dung of omnivores or carnivores. Although not all coprophilous fungi produce mushrooms, there are many that do in the genera Coprinopsis and Deconica. Known species include: Bolbitius vitellinus Conocybe moseri Conocybe pubescens Conocybe rickenii Coprinellus niveus Coprinopsis acuminata Coprinopsis cinerea Coprinopsis narcotica Coprinopsis patouillardii Coprinopsis radiata Crucibulum laeve Cyathus stercoreus Deconica coprophila Deconica merdaria Panaeolus papilionaceus Panaeolus semiovatus Protostropharia Psilocybe cubensis Pegler, David N..

Mushrooms and Toadstools. London : Mitchell Beazley Publishing. The key aspect of a cigar case is its portability, ease of carrying cigars in jacket pockets etc.

Over the years cigar cases have evolved from a simple wooden carrier to a luxurious tote cedar lined to retain the humidity of cigars; the leather cigar case has evolved over the past 20 years, from a soft leather pouch to a hard-leather safe. Some provided a slot for a cutter. Based on construction and accessibility cigar cases are categorised as follows: As the name suggests, these have an lining made of Spanish cedar; these are stronger cases, can withstand impact without damaging the cigars.

These cases have two parts. Depending upon construction, one part slides onto the other; the degree of sliding can be adjusted to fit the length of the cigar. These cases have grooves to fit the cigars; these are sliding cases, as the top can be adjusted to the bottom in a telescoping fashion.

These cases do not have a cedar lining and are of soft construction; the shell of the case is leather, creased against a die matching the ring gauge of the cigar to create the shape of the case. The forms include silver. Dupont Xikar Cigarette case Cigar Case article published in Cigar Case article published in Cigar Cyclopedia Gunila Gunila, is a dark background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt 74 kilometers in diameter.

This minor planet was named "Gunila", after a female name picked from the Lahrer Hinkender Bote, published in Lahr , southern Germany. A Hinkender Bote was a popular almanac in the alemannic-speaking region from the late 17th throughout the early 20th century.

For 9 November, the calendar gives "Gunila" as the German analogue for Theodor and Erbo, the respective catholic and protestant feast-days. Former is related to Saint Theodore of Amasea , whose feast day is 9 November; as with 22 other asteroids — starting with Otila , ending with Oda — Reinmuth selected names from this calendar due to his many asteroid discoveries that he had trouble thinking of proper names.

In the Tholen classification, Gunila is an X-type asteroid, somewhat similar to that of a dark D-type. Lightcurve analysis gave an ambiguous rotation period of 8. An alternative period determination by Tom Polakis in gave The Japanese Akari satellite gave a larger diameter of Three asteroid occultations between and , gave an estimated diameter of 74, 92 and 93 kilometers, respectively; these timed.

However the measurements for Gunila were of poor quality in all three cases. Lightcurve Database Query, at www. He was born in New York. He was number one in the morning ratings through most of the s and was a popular figure in the city of Philadelphia before being overtaken by The Howard Stern Show. In , he returned to radio hosting, working with WMGK , his show runs from am to am.

The show features cohost Jen Posner and the goofy antics of the two are accompanied by producer Rob Calvert; the show is not only a talk format but plays a number of classic rock songs throughout the morning including a " Breakfast with the Beatles " segment from until am. DeBella closes out his broadcast with "Have a great day, Philadelphia.

Every spring, DeBella sponsors an annual Dog-Walk in Fairmount Park , the largest park within city limits in the country. He heads the annual "MGK Turkey Drop," held every year two days before Thanksgiving , where listeners are encouraged to drop off turkeys or cash donations to a number of pre-advertised drop-off points. In alone, the event collected over 6, turkeys.

Official website Religion in Estonia Estonia a Lutheran Protestant nation, is today one of the "least religious" countries in the world in terms of declared attitudes, with only 14 percent of the population declaring religion to be an important part of their daily life. The religious population is predominantly Christian and includes followers of 90 affiliations, most prominently Eastern Orthodox and Lutheranism. According to Ringo Ringvee, "religion has never played an important role on the political or ideological battlefield" and that the "tendencies that prevailed in the late s for closer relations between the state and Lutheran church were ended with the Soviet occupation in ", he further states that "the chain of religious traditions was broken in most families" under the Soviet policy of state atheism.

Between and census, Eastern Orthodoxy overtook Lutheranism to become the largest Christian denomination in the country due to increasing lack of affiliation and few conversions among Estonians , as well as due to steady or increased religious affiliation among the Russian-speaking minorities. Lutheranism still remains the most popular religious group among ethnic Estonians, while Eastern Orthodoxy is practised by the non-indigenous immigrant Slavic minorities.

According to the University of Tartu , irreligious Estonians are not atheists. Robert T. Francoeur and Raymond J. Noonan write that "In , the church was separated from the state, but religious instruction remained in the schools and clergymen were trained at the Faculty of Theology at Tartu University.

With the Soviet occupation and the implementation of anti-Christian legislation, the church lost over two thirds of its clergy. Work with children, publishing, so on, was banned, church property was nationalized , the Faculty of Theology was closed. The text titled World and Its Peoples: Estonia, Latvia and Poland , published by the Marshall Cavendish , states that in addition to the Soviet antireligious campaign in Estonia, which mandated the confiscation of church property and deportation of theologians to Siberia , many "churches were destroyed in the German occupation of Estonia, from through , in World War II".

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union , this antireligious legislation was annulled. The membership of the Apostolic Orthodox was about 30, in Since many Lutherans converted to Orthodox Christianity which resulted in the rise of the Orthodox in Estonia. The reoccupation of Estonia state by the Soviet Union ended the autonomy of the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church however, the autonomy was regained in after Estonia regained her independence under the Soviet Union.

One of the major challenges faced by the current Orthodox Christians in Estonia is Identification; the perception that the Orthodox Christianity is a Russian religion and the history of Russian invasions of Estonia makes it difficult for people to understand the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church.

The division between the two Orthodox Christian Churches in Estonia is relative; the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox is dominated by ethnic Estonians whereas the majority of the Estonian Orthodox Church are ethnic Russians. The communication and cooperation between the believers of the two Orthodox communities in Estonia is a social practice and occurs at the individual level.

The Attitude of the two Orthodox Churches in Estonia is more ubiquitous as there seems to be a boundary between the two. Religious revivals from the s culminated in Pentecostal movements in Estonia. Foreign missionaries from Sweden and Finland brought full fledged Pentecostalism to Estonia in the s. In , the Swedish Evangelical society, the Evangelical Homeland Foundation sent missionaries to Estonia at the request of the Lutheran clergy of the Coastal Swedes ; these missionaries, Thure Emmanuel Thoren and Lars Osterblom started the revival among the coastal Swedes.

The Revivalists broke from the Lutheran Church in ; the revival movement had spread to Western Estonia and they were called Ridala in The revival brought more charismatic activities such as jumping, clapping and speaking in tongues. It was the debut directorial venture of Mehboob Khan , he went on to become "one of the pioneer directors of Indian Cinema ". The film is thought to be inspired by Cecil B. It starred Kumar, Yakub, Sitara Devi , Kayam Ali and Mehboob Khan; the film depicted fictionalised history in the form of a Roman-Arab conflict, with the son of the Ottoman Empire being captured by the Roman army and his escape from them.

The Roman princess Rahil falls in love with him. A Muslim maid Leela and the princess help him escape. What follows are long chase scenes and fights which lead to success for Ziyad and his people. Through the film Mehboob Khan showed his expertise in the field of editing; the film was a "commercial success" and Mehboob Khan earned "critical acclaim" as a director.


Coprophilous fungi of the horse

Various adaptations are commonly found: Mechanisms of violent spore discharge. These are often phototropically orientated and effective over relatively large distances. They ensure that the spores are carried away from the dung Ingold, Adhesive projectiles.


Coprophilous fungi

Related Research Articles Pilobolus is a genus of fungi that commonly grows on herbivore dung. A basidiospore is a reproductive spore produced by Basidiomycete fungi, a grouping that includes mushrooms, shelf fungi, rusts, and smuts. Basidiospores typically each contain one haploid nucleus that is the product of meiosis, and they are produced by specialized fungal cells called basidia. Typically, four basidiospores develop on appendages from each basidium, out of these 2 are of one strain and other 2 of its opposite strain. In gills under a cap of one common species, there exist millions of basidia. Some gilled mushrooms in the order Agaricales have the ability to release billions of spores.


Coprophilous Fungi


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