ERNST NOLTE THREE FACES OF FASCISM PDF

It is widely regarded as his magnum opus and a seminal work on the history of fascism. Synopsis[ edit ] The book, which was translated into English in as The Three Faces of Fascism, argues that fascism arose as a form of resistance to and a reaction against modernity. It is equally obvious that he regarded the unity of world economics, technology, science and emancipation merely as another and more recent form of "anti-nature". From all this it begins to be apparent what is meant by "transcendence". The Three Faces of Fascism has been much praised as a seminal contribution to the creation of a theory of generic fascism based on a history of ideas, as opposed to the previous class-based analyses especially the "Rage of the Lower Middle Class" thesis that had characterized both Marxist and liberal interpretations of fascism. The book is based on the most meticulous scholarship, the command of the material is impressive, and the methodological rigour is admirable.

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Shelves: fascism , national-socialism Quite a complex work! A prior refreshing of your philosophical knowledges especially authors like Marx, Kant, Nietzsche and Hegel would be necessary. Nolte proposes to consider fascism as a trans-european Quite a complex work! Nolte proposes to consider fascism as a trans-european phenomenon in its hegelian understanding stretching from the end of the First World War to the fall of National-Socialist Germany in Therefore, Nolte divides his work in three parts, which corresponding of a different evolutionary step of fascism in different contexts.

Action Francaise, unlike her italian and german counterparts, never reached the power, however emerged a few decades before them. Nolte explains this through the fact, french society got confronted with the situation the defeat in the franco-prussian war in , economic difficulties etc Germany would face at the end of the WW1.

The second part deal with the italian fascism, which seals the birth of fascism. Even though italian fascism and action francaise might share many similiarities, they did not influence each others and were not in contact.

Unlike Maurras who came from a conservative, catholic background, Mussolini was politically educated in the socialist ranks. His political path will bring him always more on the right of the political spectrum, which will become a caracteristic of fascism: its flexibility. Depending on their needs, italian fascists will regularly switch their approaches from left to right and contrariwise.

Nolte ends this part concluding that Mussolini, while being certainly less intellectualized in comparison with Maurras and Hitler , had the brightest and richest even though often contradictory intellectual background.

The third and last part deals with the german National-Socialism. Nolte considers it as the maturity of the fascist phenomenon but also its end. Even though, Hitler never ceased to admire Mussolini, and thus until the very end, his thoughts demonstrated in fact more similarities with Maurras from "Action Francaise".

Nolte considers NS-Germany as the most radical version of fascism. This structure in three parts not only emphasize the evolution of fascism through time, but also in different context. Just as liberalism or communism, fascism took different forms in the different countries it came to power.

After all, Nolte was first a philsoph before becoming historian and you could easily find economic approach in other authors works. Nolte begins as early as the French Revolution and an in-depth survey of Definitely a book I will have to one day read again.

Nolte begins as early as the French Revolution and an in-depth survey of the various right-wing currents of liberalism and conservative that emerged from it and travels all the way from there to the fall of National Socialism in World War 2. To me, the most important takeaway is just the demystifying fascism as "the bad guys who did the bad things" or as just a series of megalomaniacs who cynically "tricked" the population into giving them power.

These people had theory, analysis, debates, serious accusations about the nature of modern society. I disagree with all of them, obviously, but to regard fascism as merely irrationality or fear I think is a tactical blunder which will do little to combat its manifestations today.

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Three Faces Of Fascism: Action Francaise, Italian Fascism, National Socialism

Shelves: fascism , national-socialism Quite a complex work! A prior refreshing of your philosophical knowledges especially authors like Marx, Kant, Nietzsche and Hegel would be necessary. Nolte proposes to consider fascism as a trans-european Quite a complex work! Nolte proposes to consider fascism as a trans-european phenomenon in its hegelian understanding stretching from the end of the First World War to the fall of National-Socialist Germany in Therefore, Nolte divides his work in three parts, which corresponding of a different evolutionary step of fascism in different contexts. Action Francaise, unlike her italian and german counterparts, never reached the power, however emerged a few decades before them.

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Ernst Nolte

His tutor went to the window and saw smoke and flames billowing up. Soon afterwards an anonymous letter arrived accusing Ernst Nolte, who has died aged 93, of being a pseudo-scholar who represented the continuity of fascism. Nolte was no stranger to controversy. He compared them to the Nazi stormtroopers who had disrupted showings of the pacifist film All Quiet on the Western Front in the early s. Yet up to the 70s, he had pursued a conventional and successful academic career.

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