In January , Cessna flew an improved variant of the Cessna , a Continental OA -powered Cessna C with larger elevators and a more angular tailfin. In , the A incorporated revised landing gear and the swept-back tailfin, which is still in use today. The final aesthetic development, found in the D and all later models, was a lowered rear deck allowing an aft window. Cessna advertised this added rear visibility as " Omni-Vision. Other modifications include additional fuel tank capacity in the wing tips , added baggage compartment tanks, added wheel pants to reduce drag, or enhanced landing and takeoff performance and safety with a STOL kit.
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First flown in , more s have been built than any other aircraft Measured by its longevity and popularity, the Cessna is the most successful aircraft in history. Cessna delivered the first production model in and as of , the company and its partners had built more than 44, The aircraft remains in production today.
Design and Development 2 The Cessna started life as a tricycle landing gear variant of the taildragger Cessna , with a basic level of standard equipment. In January , Cessna flew an improved variant of the Cessna , a Continental OA-powered Cessna C with larger elevators and a more angular tailfin.
Although the variant was tested and certified, Cessna decided to modify it with a tricycle landing gear, and the modified Cessna C flew again on 12 June To reduce the time and cost of certification, the type was added to the Cessna type certificate as the Model Later, the was given its own type certificate, 3A The became an overnight sales success, and over 1, were built in , its first full year of production.
Early s were similar in appearance to the s, with the same straight aft fuselage and tall landing gear legs, although the had a straight tailfin while the had a rounded fin and rudder.
In , the A incorporated revised landing gear and the swept-back tailfin, which is still in use today. The final aesthetic development, found in the D and all later models, was a lowered rear deck allowing an aft window.
Cessna advertised this added rear visibility as "Omni-Vision. Modifications The Cessna may be modified via a wide array of supplemental type certificates STCs , including increased engine power and higher gross weights. Available STC engine modifications increase power from to hp to kW , add constant-speed propellers, or allow the use of automobile gasoline. Other modifications include additional fuel tank capacity in the wing tips, added baggage compartment tanks, added wheel pants to reduce drag, or enhanced landing and takeoff performance and safety with a STOL kit.
The has also been equipped with the hp kW fuel injected Superior Air Parts Vantage engine. Operational History 2 A Cessna was used in to set the world record for flight endurance; the record still stands. They landed back at McCarran Airfield on February 4, , after 64 days, 22 hours, 19 minutes and 5 seconds in flight.
The flight was part of a fund-raising effort for the Damon Runyon Cancer Fund. Food and water were transferred by matching speeds with a chase car on a straight stretch of road in the desert and hoisting the supplies aboard with a rope and bucket. Engine oil was added by means of a tube from the cabin that was fitted to pass through the firewall. The remaining space was used for a pad on which the relief pilot slept. The right cabin door was replaced with an easy-opening, accordion-type door to allow supplies and fuel to be hoisted aboard.
Early in the flight, the engine-driven electric generator failed. The aircraft is on display in the passenger terminal at McCarran International Airport. Photos and details of the record flight can be seen in a small museum on the upper level of the baggage claim area. That is until my psychiatrist opens up for business in the morning. It was equipped with a Continental O hp kW six-cylinder, air-cooled engine and had a maximum gross weight of 2, lb kg.
Cessna A The model A introduced a swept-back tailfin and rudder, as well as float fittings. Cessna B The B was introduced in late as the model and featured a shorter landing gear, engine mounts lengthened three inches 76 mm , a reshaped cowling, and a pointed propeller spinner.
For the first time, the "Skyhawk" name was applied to an available deluxe option package. This added optional equipment included full exterior paint to replace the standard partial paint stripes and standard avionics.
The gross weight was increased to 2, lb 1, kg. Cessna C The model was the C. It brought to the line an optional autopilot and a key starter to replace the previous pull-starter. The seats were redesigned to be six-way adjustable. A child seat was made optional to allow two children to be carried in the baggage area. A total of C models were produced. Cessna D The D model introduced the lower rear fuselage with a wraparound Omni-Vision rear window and a one-piece windshield.
Gross weight was increased to 2, lb 1, kg , where it would stay until the P. New rudder and brake pedals were also added. In reality this was not a new model, but a Cessna Skylark that had been renamed for its last year of production. The Skylark had gained a reputation for poor engine reliability, and the renaming of it as a was a marketing attempt to regain sales through rebranding.
The move was not a success, and neither the Powermatic nor the Skylark were produced again after the model year. Cessna E The E was the model.
The electrical fuses were replaced with circuit breakers. The E also featured a redesigned instrument panel. Cessna F The model F introduced electrically operated flaps to replace the previous lever-operated system. It was built in France by Reims Cessna as the F until These models formed the basis for the U. Air Force Academy for the cadet pilot indoctrination program, while others were distributed to Air Force aero clubs.
A total of 1, Fs were completed. It also introduced a shorter-stroke nose gear oleo to reduce drag and improve the appearance of the aircraft in flight.
A new cowling was used, introducing shock-mounts that transmitted lower noise levels to the cockpit and reduced cowl cracking. The electric stall warning horn was replaced by a pneumatic one. A total of Hs were built.
Cessna I The model marked the beginning of the Lycoming-powered s. The model marked the beginning of the Lycoming-powered s. There was no change in the sea level rate of climb at ft m per minute. The I also introduced the first standard "T" instrument arrangement. The I saw an increase in production to record levels with 1, built.
However, as time for model introduction neared, those dealers who were aware of the change began applying pressure on the factory to continue the previous configuration. They felt the new model would be less usable as a trainer. Consequently, and at the last minute, the decision was made to continue the in its original configuration.
The planned J configuration would be introduced as a new model, the The deluxe option would become the Cardinal. The "J" designation was never publicly used. Cessna K The next model year was the "K" model.
The K had a redesigned tailfin cap and reshaped rear windows. Optional long-range 52 US gal l wing fuel tanks were offered. The model was still called the K, but sported fiberglass, downward-shaped, conical wing tips. Fully articulated seats were offered as well.
Production in was units. Cessna L The L, sold during and , replaced the main landing gear legs which were originally flat spring steel with tapered, tubular steel gear legs.
The new gear had a width that was increased by 12 in 30 cm. The new tubular gear was lighter, but required aerodynamic fairings to maintain the same speed and climb performance as experienced with the flat steel design. Cessna M The M of gained a drooped wing leading edge for improved low-speed handling.
This was marketed as the "camber-lift" wing. The baggage compartment was increased in size, and nose-mounted dual landing lights were available as an option. In , Cessna stopped marketing the aircraft as the and began exclusively using the "Skyhawk" designation. This model year also saw a redesigned instrument panel to hold more avionics. Among other changes, the fuel and other small gauges are relocated to the left side for improved pilot readability compared with the earlier panel designs.
Total production of "M" models was over the four years it was manufactured. But this engine proved troublesome, and it was replaced by the similarly rated OD2J to create the P.
The "N" model also introduced rudder trim as an option and standard "pre-selectable" flaps. The model brought a volt electrical system to replace the previous volt system. Air conditioning was an option. Larger wing tanks increased the optional fuel to 66 US gallons L. The "N" remained in production until when the P or Skyhawk P was introduced. Cessna O There was no "O" "Oscar" model , to avoid confusion with the number zero. The Lycoming OD2J was a great improvement.
The "P" model also saw the maximum flap deflection decreased from 40 degrees to 30 to allow a gross weight increase from 2, lb 1, kg to 2, lb 1, kg.
A wet wing was optional, with a capacity of 62 US gallons of fuel. In , the "P" saw the landing lights moved from the nose to the wing to increase bulb life. The model added some minor soundproofing improvements and thicker windows. A second door latch pin was introduced in Production of the "P" ended in , and no more s were built for eleven years as legal liability rulings in the U.
It had a useful load that was about lb 45 kg more than the Skyhawk P and a rate of climb that was actually 20 feet 6 m per minute lower, due to the higher gross weight.
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